The online journal of Luke Dockery

Jesus, Christmas, and Hanukkah

Christmas can be a controversial subject in Christian circles.

In our modern climate of culture wars, the battle of Christmas creeps up every year. You know what I’m talking about: the debate between “Merry Christmas” and “Happy Holidays” as the appropriate seasonal greeting. Secular extremists claim that being wished “Merry Christmas” forces Christianity upon them, and Christian extremists claim to be persecuted by political correctness if any other greeting is used. As I have written before, I refuse to take offense about such things, so this particular controversy is not a great concern to me. I sympathize with the “Keep Christ in Christmas” crowd, but it is not a banner I regularly wave. I cheerfully wish “Merry Christmas” to people without a second thought or any ulterior motive.

If you are not part of the fellowship of Churches of Christ, you might be unaware that some Christians actually have the opposite concern: they want to keep Christ out of Christmas. At first glance this may seem unbelievable, but traditionally, members of Churches of Christ have been uncomfortable with celebrating Christmas as a religious holiday (i.e. the birth of Jesus). To my knowledge, there are three reasons for this.

First, historically, Jesus was almost certainly not born on December 25. The Bible does not tell us exactly when Jesus was born. He was born at a time when shepherds were out in the fields with their sheep, and although it is possible that sheep would be grazing in the outskirts of Bethlehem in the middle of winter, it is not prime sheep-grazing time. Since we don’t know when Jesus was born but do know that he most likely was not born on December 25, some people are uncomfortable with seeming to support a factual error. I understand that concern, but I think it is possible to observe the holiday while also maintaining historical accuracy.

Second, many people claim that Christmas has pagan origins. This is a common and generally-accepted claim, but it is also historically inaccurate. As far as I can tell, there may be specific aspects of the ways that people celebrate Christmas that have some pagan connections, but the origins of the holiday itself are not pagan. And even if they were, the reality is that there are a lot of things in our culture that have roots in paganism that don’t bother us today. For example, the names of many of our months and days have roots in paganism, but I don’t ever remember anyone rising up in arms about how terrible it is that we celebrate the god Thor every Thursday. Regardless, the historical reality that Christmas was not co-opted from pagan celebrations should render this argument irrelevant.

Third, and perhaps most important, is the argument that the Scriptures do not command us to celebrate the birth of Jesus and thus, do not authorize us to do so. We do celebrate the death and the resurrection of Jesus through the Lord’s Supper and are commanded to do so, but we have no similar command to observe Jesus’ birth, so the argument goes.

Here’s the problem with that third argument: Jesus’ own behavior illustrates that it is permissible to observe religious holidays that are not prescribed in Scripture.

In the Gospel of John, one of the recurring themes that John uses to describe the life of Jesus is Jewish religious feasts. Frequently he will describe how Jesus went up to Jerusalem to attend one feast or another, and when He does, exciting things tend to happen:

  • In John 2.13ff., Jesus goes to Jerusalem to attend the Passover and cleanses the temple.
  • In John 5, Jesus goes up to Jerusalem to observe an (unnamed) “feast of the Jews” and heals an invalid on the Sabbath.
  • In John 6, while the Passover is at hand, Jesus feeds the 5,000.
  • In John 7, Jesus goes up to Jerusalem to for the Feast of Tabernacles and begins teaching in the temple, leading to sharp arguments about who He is and where He comes from.

In this list of feasts that Jesus attends, we should also include John 10.22-23:

“At that time the Feast of Dedication took place at Jerusalem. It was winter, and Jesus was walking in the temple, in the colonnade of Solomon.”

Again, His appearance at a Jewish religious feast leads to excitement: Jesus tells the Jews who gather around Him, “I and the Father are one,” and as a result, they want to stone Him to death. But what I really want to emphasize is the part about the “Feast of Dedication”. You won’t find that feast described and commanded in the Old Testament along with Passover, Tabernacles, and Pentecost.

The Feast of Dedication came about many years later, and we know it better by a different name: Hanukkah, or the Festival of Lights. It was instituted during the Maccabean revolt in 164/163 B.C. and celebrates the rededication of the temple after it had been defiled under Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Seleucid Empire.

So John 10 tells us that Jesus was in Jerusalem, walking in the temple, during a holiday celebrating the rededication of the temple. In other words, Jesus was celebrating a religious holiday that was not commanded by the Hebrew Bible. Based on His example, I think we are on safe grounds to do the same thing today. 

I am certainly not arguing that the birth of Jesus is more important than His death or resurrection, but it is significant: it was God putting on flesh and becoming a human, and fully identifying with the trials and temptation of the human experience. It was the beginning stage of the prerequisite process that enabled Jesus to be the perfect sacrifice for our sins. It was God establishing a beachhead in the realm of Satan and beginning the frontal assault that would ultimately result in the defeat of sin and death.

And thus, it is worth celebrating. The Bible doesn’t command that we do so, but the example of Jesus certainly shows that the Bible doesn’t forbid us from doing so, either. Besides, as Christians, we should celebrate Jesus—His birth, life, teachings, miracles, death, resurrection, ascension—each and every day of the year, Christmas included.

Ultimately, I think this whole discussion falls squarely into Romans 14.1-12, where Paul talks about how Christian brothers and sisters should avoid passing judgment on one another over disputable matters.

At the end of the day, if a Christian brother or sister wants to celebrate the birth of Jesus and what it represents as a part of Christmas, you are not to pass judgment that person. And if a Christian brother or sister decides that it is inappropriate to celebrate Christmas in a religious fashion, you are not to pass judgment on that person either. In matters such as these, Paul says that we are to respect the beliefs of one another, rather than forcing our beliefs on others in a way that causes them to stumble.


  1. Stephanie Graham

    I used to work with someone. I told them I was a Christian and we would mention or talk about God on several different occasions. This particular person was Catholic. I mentioned I was trying to talk to another friend about Christianity and the Catholic person would encourage me and I definitely felt by doing so she implied she thought we were the same religion. I told my other friend..she thinks we are the same religion and we are not. I am not Catholic. Because there are so many denominations out there, the devil tries to blur distinction between denominationalism and the true church. On Christmas Eve, the denominations have evening services and masses. Instrumental music is played “O Holy Night” and as I’m sure you well know, Mary is worshiped by the Catholics. Knowing that the denominations go beyond saying,”Happy Birthday” to Jesus..that’s a large part of my problem with it…because when the church takes on the traditions of pagans and denominations there should be cause for concern. We should be distinct in that we follow the Bible instead of the traditions of man which come with them doing unauthorized, unbiblical things. We as a church should be distinct so that people can actually tell us apart from the rest of the world. “Come out from them , be separate”…I told my friend..I want you to know I am not Catholic. I do not worship Mary. Same way with celebrating Easter…there is implication that it’s really only be necessary once a year. I know people get really emotional about traditions and emotional beliefs but intellect should not be ignored just because people get really emotional or may take offense to things.

    • Luke

      Hey Stephanie, thanks for the comment.

      Certainly I am not a Catholic, but I don’t think celebrating Christmas makes me one, or gives anyone the impression that I am one.

      Your comment doesn’t really interact with the main point of this post. You say: “We should be distinct in that we follow the Bible instead of the traditions of man which come with them doing unauthorized, unbiblical things.” I largely agree with that, especially when it comes to binding beliefs and practices on others, but in this instance, Jesus himself did the very thing you are saying we shouldn’t do: He followed the traditions of man rather than the Bible in His observance Hanukkah. I think people ignore that fact, and I don’t think we can or should. That was really the point I was making in this post.

      You are right to point out that we as the church should be distinct from the world, but we are supposed to be distinct from the world in that we avoid the bad things the world does, not that we avoid the good things the world does. For example, there are a lot of people in the world—denominational people, Muslims, atheists, whoever—who take care of the poor. Should we avoid doing that so we can be distinct from them? Certainly not! Our distinction should stem from our avoidance of sin.

      When people of the world do things that are good, we should commend them for it. From my perspective, when people celebrate Jesus, even in a short-sighted sort of way like what happens at Christmas, that is to be commended. I don’t have to distinguish myself from them by not celebrating Jesus on Christmas; instead I can distinguish myself my celebrating Him every day of the year, Christmas included! Same thing with Easter: I celebrate Jesus’ death and resurrection each and every Sunday, but that includes Easter, it doesn’t exclude it.

      I hope all that makes sense, and as I wrote at the end of the post, I think this is clearly a Romans 14 issue. We don’t have to agree, but we cannot pass judgment on one another based on such a disagreement. Theologically, that is the most crucial issue.

  2. Tami Judy

    I cannot tell you how much I appreciate you posting this article. It sums up every argument I have had with other Christians who try to bind on those around them the evils of celebrating Christmas. Especially among those my husband and I work with in Uganda this is a HUGE topic and much judgment and cries of “false teaching” arise when we say that we celebrate Christmas. I find it such a shame when Christians become legalists. If you don’t mind I am going to link your article to any future Christmas arguments! Be well, blessed by the Lord, and MERRY CHRISTMAS to you and yours!!!

    • Luke

      Thanks, Tami! Share the article however you would like; I am glad that it was beneficial to you.

      Blessings to you!

  3. Timothy L. Gott

    It’s always been “a heart issue”. It’s in the answer to the question ‘why’. From long long ago the days that God instituted were days that were set aside as Holy Days. And you could easily get the sense of this because the details of these events all had a meaning an intention about them.

    I’m sure that those involved in such event likely found something to enjoy in these events, but there was no question as ‘for whom’ the even for.

    Even the Feast of Dedication (though not commanded by God) fit the description of being ‘about’ and ‘for’ God, not ‘for’ the enjoyment of those involved. When we take the focus off of God and put it on ourselves it goes form being a Holy Day to becoming a Holiday.

    One of our duties as followers of Christ is to spur one another on toward love and good deeds … not to be offended at the lack of good deeds of others, but rather to spur them along in doing what they should. Intentionality is a part of that.

    So, in the spirit of intentionality I will ask followers of Christ why they recognize the day. Most of these Christ followers will say something like “It’s for the children” or “It’s just a time to spend with the family”. These are clearly very ‘me’ focussed answers. So, my challenge for believers everywhere is celebrate it if you have a clear understanding of what you are doing and you are doing it for God, not self, not even “for the kids”.

    Even in regard to the kids, there is little better than we can do as followers of Christ than set an example for them of living intentionally. Let them see that we live for Christ and that we know what and why we are doing what we do. We will be held accountable for every thoughtless word and deed.

    • Luke

      Hey Timothy, thanks for your good comment.

      I would certainly agree that an intentional focus on God is a necessary component of a religious observance, whether we are talking about a “holy day” or a worship assembly. I would also agree with your implication (or at least, what I think you are implying) that, for many Christians, the celebration of Christmas can be divorced from focusing on God.

      This is a reason why I am increasingly a fan of promoting Christmas from an explicitly religious perspective—I think a focus on God should permeate all aspects of our lives, so why would the celebration of Christmas be any different?

      At the same time, I do want to push back a little on what you said, or at least nuance it slightly. For those who want to celebrate Christmas merely as a time to enjoy being with family, etc., I don’t think this is wrong or spiritually shallow. One of the repeated messages of Ecclesiastes is that we should recognize elements of our lives such as family and food as gifts from God, and appreciate and enjoy them accordingly (see If someone wants to celebrate Christmas without an explicit focus on the birth of Jesus but rather to enjoy the gift of family as a blessing from God, I think this is God-glorifying as well.

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